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        • 電動執行機構
        • 閘閥、蝶閥
        首頁 > 技術文章 > 智能型電動執行器應具有哪些品質

        智能型電動執行器應具有哪些品質

        2018-10-06

        電動執行器基礎知識:一款智能電動執行器應具有的品質
        The basic knowledge of the electric actuator : what qualities should a smart electric actuator have


        隨著微電子、計算機、通信網絡技術和機電一體化技術的迅速發展,20世紀90年代以后,上出現了智能電動執行器。它是一種新型帶有微處理器的智能終端執行元件。從此,智能化已形成執行器發展的總趨勢,盡快了解智能電動執行器的發展狀況非常必要。
        With the rapid development of microelectronics, computers, communication network technology and mechatronics technology, smart electric actuators have emerged internationally since the 1990s. It is a new intelligent terminal actuator with a microprocessor. Since then, intelligence has formed the general trend of the development of actuators and it is necessary to understand the development status of intelligent electric actuators as soon as possible.

        (多回轉羅托克電動執行器)

        一、智能電動執行器及特點
        Ⅰ,intelligent electric actuator and its characteristics
        近年來,電動執行機構獲得了快速發展,國內外一些廠商相繼推出帶現場總線通信協議的智能電動執行器。新型智能電動執行器利用微機和現場總線通信技術將伺服放大器與執行機構合為一體,不僅實現了雙向通信、PID調節、在線自動標定、自校正與自診斷等多種控制技術要求的功能,還增設了行程保護、過力矩保護、電動機過熱保護、斷電信號保護、輸出現場閥位指示和故障報警等功能。它可進行現場操作或遠方操作,完成手動操作及手動/自動之間無擾動切換。
        In recent years, electric actuators have gained rapid development. Some domestic and foreign manufacturers have successively launched smart electric actuators with fieldbus communication protocols. The new intelligent electric actuator uses a microcomputer and fieldbus communication technology to integrate the servo amplifier and the implementing agency. It not only realizes functions of various control technology requirements such as bidirectional communication, PID adjustment, on-line automatic calibration, self-calibration and self-diagnosis, but also adds functions such as stroke protection, over-torque protection, motor overheat protection, power-off signal protection, output on-site valve position indication and fault alarm. It can perform on-site operation or remote operation, and complete manual operation and manual/automatic bumpless switching.


        電動執行器采用了新穎結構部件。伺服放大器中采用了微處理器系統,所有控制功能均可通過編輯實現,還具有數字通信接口,從而具有HART協議或現場總線通信功能,成為現場總線控制系統中的一個節點。有的伺服放大器中還采用變頻器技術,可更有效控制伺服電機動作。減速器采用新穎傳動結構,運行平穩,傳動效率高,無爬行,摩擦小。位置傳送器采用新技術和新方法,有的采用霍爾效應傳感器,直接感應閥桿的縱向或旋轉動作,實現了非接觸式定位檢測;有的采用特殊電位器,電位器中裝有球軸承和特殊導電材質做成的電阻薄片;有的采用磁阻效應的非接觸式旋轉角度傳感器。
        Intelligent electric actuators use novel structural components. A microprocessor system is used in the servo amplifier. All control functions can be edited, and it also has a digital communication interface so that it possesses a HART protocol or a fieldbus communication function, which makes it become a node in the fieldbus control system. Some servo amplifiers also use inverter technology to more effectively control servo motor motion. The speed reducer adopts a novel transmission structure, which has stable operation, high transmission efficiency, no creep, and low friction. The position transmitter adopts new technology and new methods. Some use Hall-effect sensors and directly sense the longitudinal or rotational motion of the valve stem, which realizes non-contact positioning detection. Some use special potentiometers, and potentiometers are equipped with ball bearings and resistance sheets made of special conductive materials; some use non-contact rotary angle sensors with magnetoresistance effects.

        (角行程羅托克電動執行器)

        電動執行器通常都有液晶顯示器和手動操作按鈕,用于顯示各種狀態信息和輸入組態數據以及手動操作等。
        Intelligent electric actuators usually have LCD monitor and manual operation buttons, for displaying various status information, inputting configuration data, and manual operations, etc.

        1、智能型電動執行器與傳統電動執行器相比,主要有如下特點。
        Ⅰ,Compared with conventional electric actuators, smart electric actuators mainly have the following features.

        (1)主要參數技術指標先進,如工作死區、基本誤差、回差等指標已達到或接近世界先進水平,超過國內現有DDZ一Ⅱ、Ⅲ型電動執行器。
        (1) The main parameters technical indicators are advanced , such as working dead zone, basic error, return difference and other indicators, which all have reached or approached the world advanced level, and DDZ-II, III-type electric actuators have exceeded the existing domestic standard.
        (2)采用先進微機和數字顯示技術,以智能伺服放大器取代傳統伺服放大器,以數字式操作器取代原有模擬指針式操作器,解決了數字顯示跳動頻繁而造成人眼疲勞的問題。
        (2) Using advanced microcomputers and digital display technology, intelligent servo amplifiers have replaced traditional servo amplifiers, and digital operators have replaced the original analog pointer operators. This has solved the problem of eye fatigue caused by frequent digital display beating.
        (3)功能強、使用方便,具有自診斷、自調整和PI調節等功能,尤其是PI調節功能可省去前級調節器,直接接受變送器信號。
        (3) Smart electric actuators possess merits such as strong function and easy to use, with self-diagnosis, self-adjustment and PI adjustment and other functions. Especially the PI adjustment function can eliminate the pre-regulator and directly accept the transmitter signal.

        (4)增加了流量特性軟件修正。采用微處理機后,能靈活地設定、改變流量特性,提高調節閥控制性能,使一種固有特性的調節閥可以擁有多種輸出特性,使不能進行閥芯形狀修正(蝶閥)的閥也可改變流量特性,可以使非標準特性修正為標準特性,該功能將改變長期以來靠閥芯加工修正流量特性的現狀。
        (4) Added flow rate software corrections. After the microprocessor is used, the flow characteristics can be flexibly set and changed to improve the control performance of the regulating valve, so that an inherently characteristic regulating valve can have a variety of output characteristics. By this way, it can also make valves that are not capable of spool shape correction (butterfly valves)  change the flow characteristics, and can correct non-standard characteristics to standard features that will change the status of long-term correction of flow characteristics by spool processing.
        (5)在調節中采用電制動和斷續調節技術,對具有自鎖功能的執行機構可取消機械摩擦制動器,提高了整機的可靠性。
        (5) The electric brake and intermittent adjustment technology are used in the adjustment. The actuator with self-locking function can eliminate the mechanical friction brake to improve the reliability of the whole machine.
        (6)三相放大器的設計采用有單相智能伺服放大器外接三相功率轉換器的組合式方案,方便了生產和備料,為控制室不進三相電源的控制提供了可能。
        (6) The design of the three-phase amplifier adopts the combined scheme of the single-phase intelligent servo amplifier external connection of the three-phase power converter, which facilitates the production and stock preparation, and provides the possibility for the control room not to control the three-phase power supply.

        (直行程羅托克電動執行器)

        二、幾種典型的智能電動執行器
        Ⅱ. Several typical intelligent electric actuators

        1.QT智能型電動執行器
        1.QT Intelligent Electric Actuator

        (QT電動執行器)

        QT智能型電動執行器采用現代單片MCU和外圍芯片組成控制單元,接受統一標準直流信號,經過運算處理后,終驅動交流電機輸出與之相對應的直線位移。該機構可方便與調節閥配套成自動調節閥,具備調節閥本身所要求的各種動作變化功能,適用于電力、冶金、石油、化工及輕工等工業部門。其主要特點如下。
        I.intelligent electric actuator adopts a modern high-efficiency single-chip MCU and peripheral chips to form a control unit. It accepts a unified standard DC signal, and after the operation processing, it finally drives the linear displacement of the AC motor output. The mechanism is convenient to combine with a regulating valve as an automatic regulating valve, and has various action change functions required by the regulating valve itself, and is applicable to electric power, metallurgy, petroleum, chemical and light industry and other industrial sectors. Its main features are as follows:
        (1)以單相交流220V或者380V電源為動力。
          (1) Take single-phase AC 220V power supply as its driving power.
        (2)采用高性能導電塑料電位器為位置傳感器,度高、壽命長。
          (2) High-performance conductive plastic potentiometer is used as a position sensor with high accuracy and long life.
        (3)用永磁式交流同步電機做驅動電機,短時問超負荷情況下不會損壞。
          (3) The permanent magnet type AC synchronous motor is used as a drive motor, which will not be damaged in a short time under overload condition.
        (4)內置記憶芯片于控制部件,在輸入電壓低于額定電壓前的瞬間,自動記下現場數據,當輸入電壓恢復正常后,能保證系統繼續工作。
        (4) The built-in memory chip in the control part automatically records the field data immediately before the input voltage is lower than the rated voltage. When the input voltage returns to normal, the system can continue to work.
        (5)備有標準RS一485通信口。
        (5) Standard RS-485 communication port is provided.
        (6)除自動跟蹤輸入信號實現閥門的開度操作外,也可在現場以手動操作按鍵方式電動改變閥門開度。
        (6) In addition to the automatic tracking of the input signal to achieve the opening degree of the valve, it is also possible to change the opening degree of the valve electrically in the scene by manually operating the key.
        (7)當執行機構控制電路中MCU發出開或關的命令后,執行機構在6S內不動作,將被判定為電機堵轉,同時顯示器出現閃爍,并停止發出開或關命令,執行機構將停止運行。直到儀表被復位后,才可再次投入使用。
        (7) When the MCU in the actuator control circuit issues an on or off command, the actuator does not act within 6 seconds and it is determined that the motor is stalled. Simultaneously, At the same time the display flashes and stops issuing an on or off command and the actuator will stop operating. Do not use the instrument until it is reset.
        (8)僅配上輸入信號線及單相交流電源線即可控制運轉而無需另配伺服放大器。
        (8) Only the input signal line and single-phase AC power line can be connected to control the operation without the need of an additional servo amplifier.
        (9)該執行器設計成全封閉式,防塵、防水。采用MCU控制,無需開蓋,就可進行機械行程設定,輸入信號標定,且操作簡單、方便。
        (9) The actuator is designed to be fully enclosed, dustproof and waterproof. With MCU control, mechanical stroke setting, input signal calibration, and simple and convenient operation can be performed without opening the cover.

        2.伯納德系列智能電動執行器
        2.Bonard series smart electric actuator

        (伯納德電動執行器)

        伯納德系列為數字調節型一S2控制模式,伯納德系列為連續調節型一S4控制模式。它們采用機械自鎖的蝸輪、蝸桿結構,三相電機變頻驅動和智能化監控、數字檢測技術,其運行速度和力矩可在線和離線寬范圍設定,標準化程度高。具有功能強大,使用簡單和維護量小的特點,配上不同減速裝置,可輸出角位移(力矩可達40000Nm)和直線位移(推力可達80kN),驅動各類閥體或擋板。其主要特點如下。
        The Bonard series is a digitally regulated S2 control mode, and the Bonard series is a continuously regulated S4 control mode. They adopt mechanical self-locking worm gear, worm structure, three-phase motor variable frequency drive and intelligent monitoring, digital detection technology, and its operating speed and torque can be set in a wide range online and offline, with a high degree of standardization. With powerful features, simple use and low maintenance, coupled with different deceleration devices, it can output angular displacement (torque up to 40000Nm) and linear displacement (thrust up to 80kN) to drive various valve body or baffle. Its main features are as follows.
        (1)高度智能化設計,位移、力矩、速度等微處理器現代控制技術,組態靈活,功能強大。
          (1) Highly intelligent design, displacement, torque, speed and other all-round microprocessor modern control technology, flexible configuration and powerful functions.
        (2)電子化、數字化霍爾傳感器檢測,度高、可靠性強、穩定性好、抗干擾能力強;復合傳感,位移、速度和轉向由同一傳感器檢測。
         (2) Electronic, digital hall sensor detection has advantages, including high accuracy, reliability, good stability, strong anti-interference ability; composite sensing, displacement, speed and steering detected by the same sensor.
        (3)組態方法有本機控制、遙控或系統在線3種方式,簡化了調試和設置操作。
         (3) Configuration methods include three ways of local control, remote control or system online, which simplifies debugging and setting operations.
        (4)電機速度、負載變頻控制,不受電源電壓波動影響,同一產品應用面寬,備品少,
         (4) The motor speed and load frequency control are not affected by the fluctuation of the power supply voltage. The width of the application of the same product is small, and there are few spare parts.

        (5)高可靠設計,電子化監控、診斷、報警等,功能齊備,正常工作參數值為報警保護值的一半:電子參數調控型代替原機械額定值型,大大提高了執行機械可靠性、可控性和壽命。
          (5) High-reliable design, electronic monitoring, diagnosis, alarm, etc., full-featured, normal working parameter value is half of the alarm protection value: Electronic parameter control type replaces the original mechanical rating type, which greatly improves the execution of mechanical reliability. Controlled and longevity.
        (6)輸入、輸出方式組態靈活,數字量、脈沖量、模擬量和現場總線方式根據需要選配,具有廣泛的適用性。
         (6) The input and output modes are flexible in configuration. The digital quantity, pulse quantity, analog quantity and field bus method are matched according to the needs and have wide applicability.
        (7)定位平穩,反向、減速制動,平滑定位。
         (7) Smooth positioning, reverse, deceleration and smooth positioning.
        (8)蝸輪、蝸桿機械傳動結構,具有逆向自鎖特性,電機無需剎車,維護量小。
         (8) Worm gear, worm mechanical transmission structure, with reverse self-locking characteristics, the motor does not require brakes, maintenance is small.
        (9)防護等級IP67,可選IP68。
          (9) Protection class IP67, optional IP68.

        3.羅托克系列智能電動執行器
        3. IQ series electric actuators

        (IQ電動執行器)

        IQ系列智能電動執行器與普通執行器相比具有如下特點:
        Compared with ordinary actuator, IQ series electric actuators possess the following features:
        (1)便利的參數遙控設定功能。投入使用前,只要使用由廠家提供的設定工具,對準執行器就可進行參數的遙控設定。不僅簡化了設定工作程序,還提高了設備安全運行性,特別是那些要求防爆的場所尤為重要。
          (1) Convenient parameter remote setting function. Before use, as long as the use of a dedicated set of tools provided by the manufacturer, the actuator can be set parameters remotely. It not only simplifies the setting of working procedures, but also improves the safe operation of the equipment, especially those places that require explosion protection are particularly important.

        (2)豐富的在線顯示功能。采用液晶顯示技術,利用內置式液晶顯示板,不僅可準確顯示閥門開、關狀態和正常閥門開度等,且在參數設定或執行器有故障時,也能顯示出重要信息。
          (2) Rich online display function. The use of liquid crystal display technology and built-in liquid crystal display panel, not only can accurately display the valve opening and closing state and the normal valve opening, etc., and in the parameter setting or actuator failure, it can also display important information.
        (3)完善的自診斷及保護功能。它可在線診斷出伺服電機過載、過熱情況及電源的狀態等,還能自動識別三相電源相位,緊急情況時,執行器可保位或運行到預先設定的安全位置。
        (3) Perfect self-diagnosis and protection functions. It can diagnose the servo motor overload, overheat condition and power supply status online. It can also automatically recognize the phase of the three-phase power supply. In case of an emergency, the actuator can be stored or moved to a preset safe position.
        (4)先進的控制功能。采用了計算機技術,把先進自動跟隨控制技術設計為它的一項標準功能。執行器響應速度與實際要求偏差大小成比例,即所謂的“變速控制”,大大提高了執行器響應品質。
        (4) Advanced control functions. Using computer technology, advanced automatic following control technology was designed as one of its standard features. The response speed of the actuator is proportional to the actual demand deviation, which is the so-called "variable speed control", which greatly improves the actuator response quality.
        (5)較強的現場適應性。整機設計具有IP54級防護能力,且對執行器內部與外部信號接I=1也都采用光電隔離技術,提高了可靠性,特別是執行器內部控制卡件采用了防震固定法,所有接插件都帶有“反扣”以防松動,積木式結構使維修非常方便。
        (5) Strong field adaptability. The whole design has IP54 protection, and the isolation between the internal and external signal of the actuator I=1 also adopts the photoelectric isolation technology, which improves the reliability. In particular, the internal control card of the actuator adopts the anti-seismic fixing method, and all connectors. All have "reverse buckles" to prevent loosening, and the modular structure makes maintenance very convenient.

        三、智能電動執行器的發展趨勢
        Ⅲ, the development trend of the smart electric actuator
        綜上所述,智能電動執行器的發展趨勢可以歸納為:機電一體化結構逐步取代組合式結構,智能化控制技術逐步取代純電子控制技術,帶通信技術功能的逐步取代不帶通信技術的,數字控制方式逐步取代傳統的模擬控制方式,運用紅外遙控的非接觸式調試技術逐步取代接觸式手動調試技術,等等。
        In summary, the development trend of intelligent electric actuators can be summarized as: The mechatronics structure gradually replaced the modular structure, and intelligent control technology gradually replaced pure electronic control technology. Functions without communication technology are gradually replaced by functions with communication technology, digital control methods have gradually replaced traditional analog control methods, using infrared remote control non-contact debugging technology to gradually replace contact-type manual debugging technology, and so on.
        當智能電動執行器與現場總線連接時,智能執行器就成了現場總線控制系統(F)中的一塊現場儀表,這時它不僅具有執行器功能,還具有控制、運算和通信等功能。由此可見,我國目前新一代符合現場總線的智能電動執行器產品,是執行機構今后發展的必然趨勢,它的成功研究與應用給電動執行器的進一步發展打下了良好的基礎,并將給智能電動執行器帶來廣闊的市場發展前景。
         When the intelligent electric actuator is connected to the field bus, the smart actuator becomes a field instrument in the field bus control system (F). At this time, it not only has an actuator function, but also has functions of control, calculation, and communication. It can be seen that China's current generation of smart electric actuator products that comply with the fieldbus is an inevitable trend for the implementation of future development agencies, its successful research and application laid a good foundation for the further development of electric actuators, and will give intelligence Electric actuators bring a broad market prospect.

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